GDPR stands for the General Data Protection Regulation, which is a law dealing with data protection and privacy for individuals in the European Union. It came into force on 25 May 2018 and applies both to organisations in the EU and to organisations outside of the EU who offer goods and services in the EU.
In essence, GDPR is a regulation of how personal data is being managed by organisations. It gives individuals certain rights over their data, namely the right to be informed, the right to access their data, the right to have data rectified, the right to have their data erased, the right to object to processing of data, the right to restrict processing of data, the right to data portability, and the right to make a complaint to a data controller or processor.
It also introduces new obligations for organisations that process personal data, in order to ensure a high level of protection that is uniform across the EU. These include data protection by design and by default (which requires organisations to build appropriate technical and organisational measures into their systems to ensure security of data); data processing agreements; the appointment of a Data Protection Officer (if the organisation meets certain criteria); breach notifications; the obligation to conduct privacy impact assessments; and the obligation to comply with data subject rights.
In addition, GDPR stipulates that personal data can only be used for the purpose for which it was given, and it must be held no longer than necessary. GDPR also specifies that an individual must provide their explicit consent for a company to process their personal data. The company must be transparent about the information they are collecting, and they must limit the use of the data to a specific purpose. Furthermore, the organisations must prove that the data subject has given their consent, and that individual’s data must be securely stored, with appropriate access control measures in place.
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Organisations are required to provide a lawful basis for processing personal data, and GDPR outlines six lawful bases for doing so: Consent, Contract, Legal Obligation, Vital Interests, Public Task, and Legitimate Interests.
Finally, GDPR imposes stringent requirements for the security of personal data. Organisations must ensure that appropriate technical and organisational measures are taken to protect data from unauthorised destruction, accidental loss, or alteration. Appropriate security measures include access control, data encryption, and regular risk assessments.
GDPR is an attempt to harmonise data protection laws across the EU, giving individuals control over their personal data and setting out a uniform level of protection. It sets out clear requirements for organisations that process data and ensures that organisations are complying with measures to protect it. GDPR is a comprehensive regulation that requires organisations to adopt best practices when it comes to data handling, and it provides a framework for organisations to ensure that they have the right measures in place to protect data.